Onderzoek in dertien Nederlandse zonneparken naar vegetatie, bodem en microklimaat

Charlotte Knegt, Klaske van Wijngaarden, Pita Verweij & Merel Soons

zonneparken, vegetatie, microklimaat, bodem, biodiversiteit

Door de toenemende vraag naar duurzame energie verschijnen er steeds meer grondgebonden zonneparken in Nederland. Dit leidt tot bezorgdheid over de mogelijke ecologische effecten. Ten behoeve van de publieke discussie is het belangrijk om de effecten op de lokale vegetatie zo goed mogelijk te kwantificeren. Dit artikel beschrijft de resultaten van een veldstudie naar de effecten van Nederlandse
zonneparken op lokale vegetatie, bodem en microklimaat.

Ecological impacts of ground-mounted solar parks on local vegetation – vegetation, soil, and microclimate in thirteen solar parks in the Netherlands

solar parks, vegetation, microclimate, soil, biodiversity

Ground-mounted solar parks are rapidly expanding in the Netherlands. It is critical to monitor their effects on vegetation, soil, and microclimate. We quantified the short-term impact of solar panels in thirteen solar parks across the Netherlands. Under solar panel arrays, vegetation cover, absolute species richness and Shannon diversity were reduced compared to the surrounding area. Day-time temperatures and temperature f luctuations were lower under solar panels, while soil and air moisture levels were higher. Directly north of solar panel arrays, absolute species richness and Shannon diversity were reduced, but vegetation was taller with a higher vegetation cover. Soil moisture was highest here. South of   panel arrays, vegetation and soil parameters were comparable to the control situation without solar panels. Reduction of species richness depended strongly on previous land use and was highest in parks with high initial biodiversity value. It is therefore advised to avoid such
areas in solar park allocation. By contrast, our findings suggest that enhancement of biodiversity is possible by planning solar parks in areas with low initial biodiversity value and proper solar park design and management (i.e. targeted at removal of nutrients and seeding of forb mixtures).

 

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