Landscape justice and vulnerable groups
Landscape justice and vulnerable groups -The case of cultural minorities in the Netherlands
Jos Dekker, Kris van Koppen & Arjen Buijs
vulnerable groups, Islam, cultural minorities, environmental justice, nature interaction
Europe has a rich diversity of landscapes because of differences in biophysical conditions, land use practices and cultures. Immigration brings new people from other cultures to the continent, with different preferences regarding the landscape they live in. Because of these and other differences cultural minorities may lack access to landscape use and planning. We explore this problem and discuss what the case of cultural minorities in the Netherlands can tell us about inclusion of vulnerable groups in landscape use and planning.
Summary: Inclusion of vulnerable groups in the use and planning of landscapes is important for reasons of well-being and democracy and in line with the Euro-pean Landscape Convention. Lack of interaction with landscapes has multiple causes, including a lack of opportunities to access nature. Non-western migrants are a relevant and growing part of the Dutch population. Many of them like to visit specific landscapes. As the case of Turkish- and Moroccan-origin residents compared to Dutch-origin people demonstrates, there are relative differences in interactions with natural and cultural landscapes and in nature images and landscape preferences. Such differences may affect, partly negatively, the interaction with landscape. Aiming at a more inclusive landscape is a matter of environmental justice, with distributive, procedural and recognition aspects. Due to the interconnected-ness between these different aspects, overcoming barriers is a challenge. There are inspiring examples of initiatives and of more inclusive methods of spatial planning. Characteristic features of such examples are that they are sensitive and respectful to differences, actively open up procedures and invite participation, reach out and build bridges to vulnerable groups, and allow for a diversity of green places in resonance with different cultural views.
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